What is Ubiquitous Computing? ubiquitous computing refers to the ubiquity of computer-based information processing (EDP) using any device. Ubiquitous computing is a concept. The term Ubiquitous Computing was first used in 1988 by Mark Weiser in his essay The Computer for the 21st Century. His vision was to make computer disappear as individual units and will be replaced by ‘intelligent objects’. Instead of, as hitherto, computer and Internet are the subject of human attention itself, to the upcoming so-called Internet of Things to support the same usage view – people in their activities will use computing power imperceptibly, without distracting him/her or even been noticed.
Basics of Ubiquitous Computing
Massachusetts Institute of Technology has seen its significant contributions to the discipline, among which is the consortium – Things That Think, the Media Lab and the lead CSAIL materialized in the Oxygen project.
In an article in 2004 , American author Adam Greenfield coined the term witty everyware for technologies that incorporate ubiquitous computing, ambient intelligence and tangible media.
Mark Weiser proposed three basic models that can be considered to develop ubiquitous systems:
- Tabs: devices few inches, which can be carried by a user
- Pads: devices the size of a hand
- Boards: devices that can measure in meters
These categories proposed by Weiser are generally characterized by large, have a flat or incorporate some kind of visual output. If these considerations are relaxed (allowing to accept, for example, devices to nanometer size) can extend this range to a much larger number of devices, also to a number of potentially more useful devices. Therefore, with time there are three types of classifications:
- Dust (powder): miniaturized devices that may not have some kind of visual output (e.g. MEMS Micro-electromechanical systems), whose size can range from nanometers to micrometers or millimeters.
- Skin : can be made to emit light capabilities and various materials, such as conductive polymers, some organic devices, etc. They are often as clothing, curtains or various decor elements.
- Clay : MEMS sets can be combined to create three-dimensional shapes
Research Areas in Ubiquitous Computing
Ubiquitous Computing represents a major scientific / technical challenge, a great niche of opportunities and is an attractive area for the business sector. Its adoption as one of the strategic lines of development of the country, will be reflected in social, scientific impact, technological impact and finally an economic impact. The research and development areas identified as high priority within the ubiquitous computing without being exhaustive, are presented below:
- Next-generation networks
- Internet 2 as a support for ubiquitous computing
- Sensor Networks
- Ad-hoc Networks
- Interconnected heterogeneous devices
- Computer Security
- Distributed Systems
- Redesign solutions which are applicable to mobile computing and / or ubiquitous.
- Multimedia Support
- Fault Tolerance
- Mobile Computing
- Peer-to-Peer Systems
- Location and positioning services
- Base Services (eg Positioning GSM / GPRS)
- Development of ubiquitous systems (applications)
- Monitoring and remote medical signal processing
- Context-aware systems
- Mobile Tele-Diagnosis
Criticism of Ubiquitous Computing
Another issue are the health consequences – the direct effects of electromagnetic fields on the body due and the materials used. Indirect effects can be also thought about when the medical devices are disturbed.