Superconductor are materials whose electrical resistance falls below a critical temperature to zero.In this state expulsion of magnetic fields take place. Only quantum mechanically explicable materials can float a superconducting sample.
Elementary Properties of Superconductor : Superconductivity
The transition temperature (Tc) is, for most materials is very low and decreases in presence of an external magnetic field or when a current flows through superconductor material, it decreases further to the critical field (Hc) at absolute zero (0 Degree Kelvin).
The magnetic flux through the superconductor material focuses on so-called flux lines, each with a flux quantum. It allows a higher current carrying capacity.
Technical applications of metallic superconductor, as well as so-called high-temperature superconductors made of ceramic materials, is applied in the generation of strong magnetic fields – for accelerators, medical appliances, as well as for measurement of energy.
Classification of Superconductor
- Metallic superconductor : Metallic superconductors possess the great advantage that they yield wires for the construction of coils for generation of very strong magnetic fields.
- Ceramic high-temperature superconductor : This class of ceramic superconductor has very high critical temperature.
- Iron-containing high temperature superconductor : A completely new and unexpected class of high temperature superconductor was discovered in 2008. A mixture of iron, lanthanum, phosphorus and oxygen can work as superconductor.
Completed Applications of Superconductor and Superconductivity
Explanation of the image : ” Magnetic levitation of a magnet over a super conductor. You can magnetically levitate (means repulsion) materials you might not think of as a magnet, like a strawberry, or even a frog (!) ” From Physics 2020: Fall ’10, colorado.edu, Prof. Steven Pollock and Prof. Oliver DeWolfe. We can see coils of Superconductor that looks like a shiny metallic cylinder and the repulsed coin like black material is a magnet of soft iron. Fumes of cooling material (usually liquid Nitrogen) can be seen like a fog around Superconductor coil.
An important application of Superconductivity is the generation of strong, constant or slowly varying magnetic fields in various complicated devices. For this application only classic superconductor group are used, especially alloys of Niobium (transition metal in the periodic table it is in the 5th group or Vanadium group). One such application is on MRI equipment, which we disused before. Nuclear fusion reactors, Particle accelerators needs this kind of magnetic field too.
Superconductor is the kind of material used for the transport of higher electrical currents. Superconducting bearings can act as energy storage for short-term storage of electrical energy. Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage is an unique of its own type and Superconductor materials, usually coils are used. Electronic circuits based on superconductivity is also under research.