Linux referred to the usually free, unix-like Operating systems based on the Linux kernel and is GNU GPL based software. The large, commercial distribution was from 1992 through the licensing of the Linux kernel under the free GNU GPL. In 1983, Richard Stallman launched the GNU project with the goal to develop an Unix-like, POSIX -compatible operating system. Linus Torvalds is an important person related to development of Linux. The development of the Linux kernel is still organized by Torvalds. Various distributions of Linux exists.
Basics about Linux
It is honestly not possible to write about Linux in this small space. There are reference books on Linux for gaining further knowledge. This article is basically for the computer users who wants a free, stable, virus free Operating System as an upgrade from Windows OS either on Apple Mac or Other PC.
Linux is a modular operating system being developed by software developers around the world who are working on different projects. In the development, non-profit organizations and many volunteers are involved. A Linux distribution summarizes the Linux kernel with different software together into an operating system that is suitable for end user. It fits a lot of distributors and experienced users modify the operating system kernel to their own purposes.
Linux is widely and extensively now, for example, on desktop computers, most servers , for servers intended for virtualization and Cloud Computing, on mobile phones , routers , netbooks , multimedia devices, as rescue disk of Antivirus softwares for virus prone Windows OS and supercomputers. While Linux is often used in in the server market as well as in mobile applications, on desktop still 2011 or so, it played only a minor role. Economic and geographical situation of a region played an important role as well as the definite contribution from Ubuntu.
The kernel of Linux
The Linux kernel is written in the C written programming language as a monolithic kernel. Important parts and time-critical modules are processor-specific, and is written in assembly programming language. The kernel allows only the necessary drivers for the hardware to load. Further on, the kernel,does the allocation of processor and resources to the various programs. The individual technical processes, the design of Linux is heavily towards UNIX.
The Linux kernel has been ported on a very large number of hardware architectures. The range is from more exotic environments such as the iPAQ handheld computers, navigation devices to digital cameras or large computers such as IBM’s System z and more recently, mobile phones either using Linux as Android operating system or natively.
The development of Linux is under the GPL and a very open development model and is not in the hands of individuals, groups or countries, but in the hands of a global community of many programmers who exchange primarily through the Internet. By this simple procedure rapid and steady development is guaranteed, which brings with it the possibility that anyone can use the kernel. The reasons for taking Linux as a secure operating system are different and depend on its tasks and the software configuration. Linux as a desktop system has a strict division of access rights, which is not observed with other popular desktop systems.
If UNIX is taken as an yardstick of core computing history, Linux is definitely another yardstick.