Ambient Intelligence is a technological paradigm that is primarily related to the more hardware-oriented approach of ubiquitous computing, as well as to the concept of pervasive computing. Ambient intelligence is the product of computer science which, by pushing technological limits in a disruptive way, challenges the very concept of information system or computer: from a processing activity exclusively centred on the user until the end of the twentieth century, ambient intelligence aims to govern the interactions between communicating objects and humans.
Because technology makes it possible to manufacture tiny and ubiquitous computers (nano-computing), it opens up to almost all everyday objects, the ability to trigger a spontaneous exchange of information, without interaction with their user.
Components of Ambient Intelligence
Technological evolution makes it possible to manufacture tiny computers and computer components, sensors and sensors that can be ubiquitous and communicate with each other and with different networks. It opens up to almost all objects of everyday life, the ability to trigger a spontaneous exchange of information, without interaction with their user.
Computer concepts are evolving into complex networked systems, fundamentally different from twentieth-century computer systems and the notion of computer (hard disk, RAM, keyboard, monitor and mouse interface, etc.) that was commonly attached to it.
These new concepts could lead to profound changes in the social, cultural and corporate world and enter everyday life. Many futurists believe that an inevitable evolution of lifestyles is underway, as well as a capital evolution of IT activities and professions. The Internet has consecrated the advent of conventional planetary networks, but a future mutation seems to be able to promote the development of ambient intelligence by diffuse computing, which is already being prepared in different fields. Ambient intelligence implements four basic elements:
Ubiquity: the ability for the user to interact (actively or passively), anywhere, with a multitude of interconnected devices, sensors, activators, and more generally with embedded electronic systems around him. All this through adapted networks and a highly distributed IT architecture.
Wait-and-see: the ability of the system to constantly feel the presence and location of objects, devices and people to take into account the context of use. All kinds of sensors are available for this purpose: cameras, microphones, radars, biometric sensors (including the first nanosensors, as well as radio frequency chips and readers (RFID) technology for identification, etc.
Natural interaction: Access to services must be as natural/intuitive as possible. Unlike the traditional interface of the computer world (called WIMP, Windows, Icons, Menus and Pointing device, (windows, icons, menus and pointing device), the human-machine interface is multimodal. It revolves around voice recognition, gesture recognition and the manipulation of real objects.
Intelligence: the ability to analyze the context and dynamic adaptation to situations. The system must learn based on user behaviours to best respond to them. This involves information storage capabilities, processing and modelling algorithms and a so-called artificial intelligence approach.
Ambient intelligence opens up new market prospects for companies or States that (via economic clusters or poles of expertise for example) seek to strengthen their position in certain areas such as mobile communications, consumer electronics, embedded software or microelectronics.
At the same time, diffuse computing could promote new collaborative logic outside of traditional commercial logic or even unpredictable emerging phenomena.
Ethical and philosophical questions as to the intrusion of computer networks and communicating objects into private life (pervasive environment), new relationships to objects, and to the risk of seeing a strong dependence of humans on computers. The question of the governance of information systems also arises, with new risks, and new opportunities offered, for example by collaborative approaches. The risk of a loss of control of a network that has become intelligent, which is a science fiction theme, could also materialize.